Retail markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity. Retailing involves the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand is identified through a supply chain. Retailers typically make a variety of strategic level decisions including the type of store, the market to be served, the optimal product assortment, customer service, supporting services and the store's overall market positioning. Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation. In the digital age, an increasing number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels, including both bricks and mortar and online retailing. Digital technologies are also changing the way that consumers pay for goods and services. Retailing support services may also include the provision of credit, delivery services and a range of supporting services.
The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping (just looking, not buying) and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase.
|ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING||ADVERTISING AND BRAND MANGEMENT||APPLIED ECONOMICS|
|BANKING AND FINANCE||BUSINESS COMMUNICATION||BUSINESS ECONOMICS|
|BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT||COMMERCIAL LAW||CORPORATE ACCOUNTANCY|
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|CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT||CUSTOMER SERVICE MANAGEMENT||DIRECT AND INDIRECT TAX|
|E-COMMERCE||ELEMENTS OF COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING||ENTREPRENEAURSHIP DEVELOPMENT|
|FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING||FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS||FINANCIAL PLANNING|
|FOREIGN TRADE MANAGEMENT||GARMENT PRODUCTION AND EXPORT MANAGEMENT||HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT|
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|INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS||INTERNATIONAL MARKETING||MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING OF INSURANCE|
|TOURISM AND TRAVEL MANAGEMENT||MARKETING MANAGEMENT||RETAIL MANAGEMENT|
|SALES AND MARKETING||SECRETARIAL PRACTICE||STATISTICS|
|STRATEGIC AND STRESS MANAGEMENT||SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT||TAX PROCEDURE AND PRACTICE|